"Two bombs and one satellite": missiles, atomic bombs, man-made earth satellites | Great spirit creates greatness

Author:admin  Time:2021-08-03 02:57:28
"Two bombs and one satellite" guide bombs, atomic bombs, and artificial earth satellites. Why can my country create the miracle of "two bombs and one star" under the conditions of "one poor and two white"? How to promote the "two bombs and one star" spirit in today's society? Please see the article "The Historical Achievement and Precious Spirit of "Two Bombs and One Star"" published by "China Aerospace News" today.
This year marks the 65th anniversary of the establishment of China's aerospace industry. For 65 years, China Aerospace has always kept pace with the times and walked with the motherland. The history of the Party, the history of New China, the history of reform and opening up, the history of socialist development, and the history of Chinese spaceflight are compulsory courses for every astronaut. In the history of Chinese spaceflight, the "two bombs and one satellite" project is a major event of milestone significance. 
On September 18, 1999, the Central Military Commission of the Central Committee of the Communist Party of China and the State Council mentioned in the "Decision on Recognizing Scientific and Technological Experts for Making Outstanding Contributions to the Development of "Two Bombs and One Star" and awarding the "Two Bombs and One Star Meritorious Medal". Technologists... They, together with the vast numbers of cadres, workers, and PLA commanders and fighters involved in the development of the "two bombs and one satellite"... Cutting-edge technologies such as man-made earth satellites have made brilliant achievements that have attracted worldwide attention.
▲ A conference to commend scientific and technological experts who have made outstanding contributions to the development of "two bombs and one star"
The author will combine my own study to share with you the knowledge and experience of the "two bombs and one star" history and its precious spirit from four aspects.
Big choice-a strong shield for national security
In the early days of the founding of New China, our country had just entered the period of national economic recovery, but immediately afterwards it carried out the resistance to US aggression and aid to Korea. After winning the great victory against the United States and Aid Korea, in order to defend the motherland and fight for the right to maintain peace, Marshal Nie Rongzhen, who was in charge of the construction of the national defense industry, and other proletarian revolutionaries of the older generation, keenly realized that in China, which has a weak technological and industrial foundation, it is necessary to quickly To create cutting-edge weapons and get rid of the situation of being constrained by others, it is necessary to distinguish the primary and secondary, concentrate the strength, do something and not do something.
In May 1956, Premier Zhou Enlai chaired a meeting of the Central Military Commission, discussed the "Preliminary Opinions on Establishing China's Missile Research Work" proposed by Nie Rongzhen, and announced the decision to develop missile weapons. In May 1958, the Fifth Academy of the Ministry of National Defense launched the task of copying the Soviet short-range missile P-2, code-named "1059", with a range of 590 kilometers. In November 1960, the "1059" missile was successfully launched and later named "Dongfeng One."
▲ "1059" missile launch
In the same year, the Central Military Commission established the policy of "two bombs (missiles and atomic bombs) as the mainstay, missile first", and put forward the requirements of "working hard, working hard, self-reliant, and advancing courageously" to develop national defense science and technology, especially cutting-edge technology. Recognized by Mao Zedong.
While imitating the P-2 missile, the First Branch of the Fifth Academy of the Ministry of National Defense proposed a plan to develop a medium-range missile with a range of 1,500 to 2,000 kilometers. After the successful launch of the "1059" missile, whether to continue to develop medium-range missiles or to improve the design on the basis of the "1059" and develop a medium- and short-range missile of about 1,000 kilometers requires a strategic decision.
In response to this situation, Nie Rongzhen clarified the guiding ideology for the development of short- and medium-range missiles: make full use of the "1059" imitation results, develop a missile with a range of 1,000 kilometers as soon as possible, and accumulate experience in independent design.
In June 1964, the modified design of the short- and medium-range missile was launched again at the Jiuquan base, and the test was a complete success. Since then, my country has its own strategic missile-the "Dongfeng II".

▲ Launch of Dongfeng-2 missile
In September 1964, on the eve of my country's atomic bomb test, Premier Zhou Enlai presided over a meeting of the Central Committee and decided to set up a demonstration team for the "combination of the two bombs" led by Qian Xuesen. In October of the same year, my country's first atomic bomb was successfully tested in Lop Nur, Xinjiang. The Central Committee of the Communist Party of China and the Central Military Commission have instructed to realize the "combination of the two bombs" as soon as possible and develop missile nuclear weapons.
In October 1966, my country delivered a nuclear warhead from the Badain Jaran Desert to Lop Nur in Xinjiang with a self-designed surface-to-surface missile Dongfeng II. The nuclear warhead exploded precisely over the target. The success of the "combination of the two bombs" test put an end to the situation where China's nuclear weapons had "bombs without guns" and laid the foundation for the development of China's aerospace technology. 

▲ The "two bombs combination" test was a complete success
Great practice-the brilliance of suffering in the Pentium era
As early as the beginning of the career, the central government determined that my country's national defense cutting-edge technology development should adhere to the policy of "self-reliance as the mainstay, and foreign aid as the supplement." From 1955 to 1958, the governments of China and the Soviet Union signed 6 relevant agreements. The Soviet Union provided technical assistance to China. my country regarded imitation as the first step in "climbing the stairs." Into the self-designed to create conditions.
However, from the very beginning, Soviet aid was conditional and limited. With the tension and deterioration of Sino-Soviet relations, the Soviet Union unilaterally broke the contract and cut off aid in July 1960, and in August it withdrew all the experts and took away all the materials, and the missile imitation work in the sprint stage encountered great difficulties.
In this regard, Mao Zedong clearly instructed: "We must be determined to engage in cutting-edge technology, and the cutting-edge must not be relaxed, let alone dismounted." The astronauts who forced the Liangshan to rely on their own strength successfully launched the first made in my country in less than three months. A short-range missile. The "Qi Bomb" marked the complete end of the imitation phase and the official beginning of the self-design phase.

▲ On February 1, 1956, Mao Zedong hosted a banquet for members of the National Committee of the Chinese People’s Political Consultative Conference in Huairen Hall, Zhongnanhai, and invited Qian Xuesen, who was originally sitting at the 37th table, to his side. Things of vitality always grow up in the struggle against the old and declining things."
In 1961, the Party Central Committee made the "Decision on Several Issues Concerning Strengthening the Construction of the Nuclear Energy Industry", stating: "In order to achieve self-reliance, breakthrough nuclear technology and strengthen the construction of my country’s nuclear energy industry, the Central Committee believes that it is necessary to further shorten the front, concentrate forces, and strengthen all relevant parties’ support for nuclear energy. Support for industrial construction.” As a result, under the unified leadership of the central government, the nation’s "game of chess" has concentrated 26 ministries and commissions, 20 provinces, autonomous regions and municipalities, and more than 1,000 scientific and technical personnel in concerted efforts to tackle key problems.
On October 16, 1964, a huge mushroom cloud exploded over Lop Nur, and my country’s first atomic bomb successfully exploded; on October 27, 1966, my country successfully carried out a missile, using the Dongfeng No. 2 A short-range missile. In the atomic bomb combined experiment, the missile hit the target very accurately. On April 24, 1970, my country's first man-made earth satellite was successfully launched, which opened the prelude to China's entry into outer space.

▲ The Long March-1 carrier rocket launches the Dongfanghong-1 satellite
The three major achievements of the missile, the atomic bomb, and the Dongfanghong-1 satellite are precisely "two bombs and one satellite." Based on the "two bombs and one satellite", my country has independently developed a series of liquid and solid missiles, carrier rockets, various satellites, hydrogen bombs, neutron bombs and other scientific and technological achievements.
Precious spirit-faith coordinates across time and space
A great cause breeds a great spirit, and a great spirit accomplishes a great cause. The spirit of "two bombs and one star"-loving the motherland, selfless dedication, self-reliance, hard work, vigorous coordination, and the courage to climb are also one of the achievements of the "two bombs and one star" project. It was created and refined by a large number of cadres, employees and PLA officers and soldiers engaged in aerospace and nuclear industries in long-term scientific research, production, and experimentation. Its formation process is a typical manifestation of the rise of military industry culture and modern corporate culture in my country.
"Love the motherland, selfless dedication" is the older generation of scientists who gave up the preferential treatment abroad and returned to the country. Numerous developers willingly became unsung heroes and dedicated silently to the revolutionary sacrifice and lofty spirit of the Chinese scientific research enterprise, which was waiting to be flourished at that time. The spirit of patriotism. This is the strong spiritual support of the developers of the "two bombs and one satellite".
"Self-reliance and hard work" is the scientific spirit of the vast number of developers who continue to carry out scientific experiments in the boundless Gobi wasteland, in the inaccessible mountains and valleys, and in the extremely harsh living environment, and finally achieve brilliant achievements. This is the basis for the success of the "two bombs and one star" cause.
"Strong coordination and the courage to climb" is under the call and leadership of the party. Thousands of scientific and technical personnel, engineering and technical personnel, and logistics support personnel across the country have gathered together and worked together to contribute to the "two bombs and one star" cause. The collective spirit of unity and cooperation for the development and advancement of scientific research capabilities. This is an important guarantee for the success of the "two bombs and one star" cause.

▲ Images of astronauts during the Fifth Academy of the Ministry of National Defense
From the establishment of the Fifth Research Institute of the Ministry of National Defense in October 1956 to the successful launch of the Dongfanghong-1 satellite in April 1970, Chinese astronauts used 14 years of arduous practice to usher in a new era of China's space activities. Since then, Chinese astronauts have succeeded from generation to generation, inherited their previous aspirations, and pushed the motherland's aerospace industry to one climax after another.
At present, the development of science and technology is changing with each passing day. The new situation and new tasks require us to inherit and carry forward the spirit of "two bombs and one star", and constantly innovate the new situation of national defense technology industry and aerospace industry in the era. As General Secretary Xi Jinping said: "The spirit of'two bombs and one star' has inspired and inspired generations of people, and is a precious spiritual wealth of the Chinese nation." "It must be passed on from generation to generation to transform it into unlimited material creativity. ".
Great prospects-from victory to new victory
The successful development of "Two Bombs and One Star" is a glorious symbol of the achievements of New China’s construction and a historical monument of the development of science and technology in New China. Carry forward under historical conditions.
The first is to adhere to strategic thinking and grasp the historical opportunity for the development of cutting-edge science and technology.
The "two bombs and one satellite" project is a great project of the times. At the beginning of the founding of New China, a hundred wastes were waiting for prosperity. With the financial resources, material resources, talents, and technical foundation at that time, the development of cutting-edge technologies such as missiles, atomic bombs, and artificial earth satellites was beyond imagination. The first-generation central leadership of the party with Comrade Mao Zedong at the core has keenly grasped the general trend of international development and the overall national strategy, and has successively made major decisions on the development of missiles, atomic bombs, and artificial earth satellites.
The successful development of the "two bombs and one satellite" has greatly improved my country’s national defense capabilities, extensively promoted the country’s scientific and technological development and economic construction, completely broke the imperialist nuclear blackmail and nuclear monopoly, and changed the country’s outlook and mentality in one fell swoop. It established the status of New China in the international arena.
Practice has proved that cutting-edge science and technology is an important support for the status of a big country and an important manifestation of comprehensive national strength. Only at important historical junctures, accurately grasp the pulse of the times and the trend of scientific and technological development, and make key and correct decisions in time, can we stay high in the world. It has a place in the field of science and technology.
The second is to uphold the party's unified leadership and always implement strong organizational commands.
The "two bombs and one satellite" project is a major national project. In order to ensure the success of the development, the Party Central Committee, the State Council, and the Central Military Commission decided to implement centralized and unified leadership and organization and command. In 1962, a special committee headed by Comrade Zhou Enlai was established to be responsible for the research and decision-making and organization and coordination of major issues. For decades, the Central Special Committee has formed a strong, capable, efficient and Chinese characteristic decision-making management model with its unique composition method, decision-making mechanism and decision-making effect.
Practice has proved that the party’s centralized and unified leadership and organizational command are an important guarantee for the success of the "two bombs and one satellite" development. Only by strengthening the party's centralized and unified leadership and implementing a strong and powerful organization and command can we unify our thinking, unify our actions, and strive to achieve success.
The third is to adhere to the socialist nationwide system and form a strong joint force of one mind.
The "Two Bombs and One Star" project is large in scale and complicated in its system. For this reason, the nationwide organization has implemented large-scale coordinated battles. The units of each system have formed a powerful force of unity and unity, fully demonstrating the political advantages of my country's socialist nationwide system.
On February 22 this year, General Secretary Xi Jinping emphasized when meeting with representatives of the Chang'e-5 mission participants participating in the research and testing: "We must continue to leverage the advantages of the new nationwide system, intensify independent innovation, make overall plans, and make persistent efforts." The new nationwide system is even more powerful. Pay more attention to promoting the spirit of scientists, pay more attention to the role of the market in resource allocation, and pay more attention to stimulating the innovative vitality of various subjects.
Practice has proved that China's aerospace industry can achieve historic breakthroughs in a relatively short period of time by leveraging the political advantages of the socialist system to concentrate its forces on major tasks. China has given full play to the advantages of the new nationwide system, and under limited conditions, it has assembled a strong force to strengthen its vitality of scientific and technological innovation, and actively responds to the new demands of the economy and society for the development of aerospace.
The fourth is to persist in self-reliance and conquer key core technologies.
The "Two Bombs and One Star" project is a strenuous "competitive" project. Cutting-edge technology is related to national security. If it cannot be digested and absorbed and independently innovated, it will be controlled by others. Faced with the technological blockade of the West and the withdrawal of aid from the Soviet Union, the Party Central Committee made a decisive decision: make up your mind, withstand pressure, be independent, self-reliant, and rely solely on your own strength to create China's "strength bomb."
Practice has proved that self-reliance and independent innovation will always be an important cornerstone for the creation and development of cutting-edge scientific and technological undertakings. Of course, emphasizing self-reliance is not to exclude foreign cooperation and exchanges, but to introduce and absorb advanced foreign technology in a focused and selective manner to increase the starting point of research and shorten the development cycle, to achieve independence and self-reliance without closed doors, self-reliance without blind xenophobia, and openness to the outside world Without losing Chinese characteristics.
Retell the past and think, and renew to history. Looking back at the historical achievements and precious spirit of "Two Bombs and One Star", it is not difficult to see that the wise decision-making of the Party Central Committee, the independent innovation of the scientific and technological circles, the coordination and cooperation of various fronts, and the scientific management of systems engineering are the scientific undertakings and strategic industries. Magic weapon to win. We have reason to believe that: follow the footsteps of the ancestors, climb forever the heights of science and technology, strengthen the ambition of aerospace to serve the country, and strengthen the belief in aerospace power. Guided by Xi Jinping’s thinking on socialism with Chinese characteristics in the new era, the astronauts of the new era will surely let "two bombs and one" The spirit of "star" blooms with new light, and it will continue to write a new chapter in the motherland's aerospace industry!
Today, let us pay tribute to the advanced group of "Two Bombs and One Star" development work represented by the winners of the "Two Bombs and One Star Meritorious Medal"!
In the mid-1950s, the first generation of the Party Central Leadership Group with Comrade Mao Zedong at the core, based on the international situation at the time, made a decisive and independent strategic decision to develop the "two bombs and one satellite" in order to defend national security and maintain world peace. . A large number of outstanding scientific and technological workers, including many scientists who have already made outstanding achievements abroad, have full love for New China, responded to the call of the party and the country, and devoted themselves to this sacred and great cause without hesitation.

On September 18, 1999, on the occasion of celebrating the 50th anniversary of the founding of the People’s Republic of China, the Party Central Committee, the State Council, and the Central Military Commission decided to commend and award 23 scientific and technological experts who made outstanding contributions to the development of the “two bombs and one star” that year Yu Min, Wang Daheng, Wang Xiji, Zhu Guangya, Sun Jiadong, Ren Xinmin, Wu Ziliang, Chen Fangyun, Chen Nengkuan, Yang Jiachi, Zhou Guangzhao, Qian Xuesen, Tu Shoue, Huang Weilu, Cheng Kaijia, Peng Huanwu "Two Bombs and One Star Merit Medal", posthumously awarded Wang Jiaxian, Deng Jiaxian, Zhao Jiuzhang , Yao Tongbin, Qian Ji, Qian Sanqiang, Guo Yonghuai "Two Bombs and One Star Merit Medal." The founder of the "two bombs and one star" is an outstanding representative of the advanced group that has devoted itself to the development of the "two bombs and one star".